Posts Tagged ‘Statistics’

Malaysian passport 9th in the world for visaless travel according to Henley and Partners Visa Restriction Index

April 24th, 2014
|  Subscribe in a reader | Subscribe to by Email

Our Malaysian passport is able to take us to 163 countries without the need for a visa. Quite an accomplishment, putting us into 9th place based on The Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index. You need to register (for free) to download the index (but you can also download it here [pdf format] since they have a poor of enforcing the registration process). Or if you are lazy, just refer to images below 🙂


The Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index 2013 page 1

The Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index 2013 page 1


The Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index 2013 page 2

The Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index 2013 page 2


We are tied with Malta for 9th place. Out of the 28 countries occupying top ten places, 20 are in Europe, and 6 in Asia+Australia+NZ. The remaining two are US and Canada. The worst 4 countries are Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, and Pakistan which are accepted in between 28 and 36 countries only.

small caveat, this is based on data up to 2013 July 1st regulations.

It will be interesting to see an index of countries allowing visitors without visa. Wonder where we will stand.



Housing Income Index: RM14,500 income to buy house in Klang Valley

February 18th, 2014
|  Subscribe in a reader | Subscribe to by Email

The Star frontpaged an interesting article today. How much should a family earn in order to afford a house in Klang Valley? A question that we all wonder about. Well, according to a survey done by Sime Darby Property Bhd in collaboration with the Faculty of Built Environment of Universiti Malaya, its….RM14,580!

The survey covered 1,529 respondents, of whom 1,183 were home owners at 12 locations: Bukit Jelutong, Denai Alam, Bukit Subang, Bandar Bukit Raja, Subang Jaya, USJ, Putra Heights, Ara Damansara, Mont Kiara, Melawati, Kajang and Nilai. I suppose the balance 346 respondents were (i) renting, (ii) not from those areas, or (iii) refused to divulge house ownership info.

Wonder why areas like Puchong, Cheras, Dengkil, Banting, Kapar, Putrajaya, Cyberjaya, Semenyih, Serdang, Klang, Shah Alam, Sg Buloh, Rawang etc not covered. Hope they conduct a second round of survey to cover these areas.

Average household income

Average household income

[image from The Star] [click on image to view larger size]

Some analysis of the respondents: 94% are married. 73% are male. 59% work in private sector; 20% are self-employed, and 14% work in government. No mention if the income is from both spouse or single spouse.

13% have post-grad qualifications, 40% have bachelor degree, and 21% have a diploma. 68% are Malay/bumiputra; 30% Chinese and just 2% Indians.  Looks like not many Indians live in these places. And seems like the affluent Malays/bumiputera are quite alot.

Quite importantly, the age group of respondents is missing. Show this info to any adult below age 30 and see if they fit into this income group. If the respondents are into their late 30s  or more, then the young adults can’t even think about buying houses in these places. 10-15 years down the lane, how would it be? As it is, our parents could afford to buy house in these locations when they were young. Read another article in the Star where Mr Gill (age 63) bought house in SS12 Subang Jaya way back in 1985 (age 34) for RM200k that took quarter of his combined income with wife. Now at age 34, what can you buy?

It will interesting to also identify the household size of the respondents. Does the average income consider the household size (kids, maid, parents, siblings etc)?

The other part of the survey covered their expenditure information. So, 12% of income goes into savings, translating into RM1749.60 on average.  How many percent can the rest of us save? Transportation is 16% (Rm2,332.80), Food 15% (RM2,187), mortgage 14% (RM2,041.20), another 15% for other loans (RM2,187), 13% for other expenses (Rm1,895.40), childcare/education 7% (RM1,020.60) and insurance 6% (RM874.80). Most likely these houses have two or more cars. How is your expenses like?

Ok, let’s look some other statistics from DOS and EPU which both refer to Household Income Survey (last done in 2012). All stats below refer to Klang Valley and/or urban figures wherever possible:

  • The top 20% of urban dwellers earned a monthly average of RM13,654 while the middle 40% earned average of RM5,294. Don’t bother looking at the bottom 40%, middle 40% already can’t own house in those 12 places (and I suspect many other places) even with double income).
  • 41% of urban dwellers earn RM5,000 or more.
  • The average monthly income for urban dweller is RM5,742. Selangor residents earned RM7,023 while KL residents RM8,586.

Looking at HIS statistics, using average salary earned by those staying in Selangor or KL and double it (both spouse working), then you can buy house in those areas. However taking into account that 41% earn more than RM5,000 and that the top 20% earn average of RM13.6k, then we are looking at a small pool of between 20-40% of people affording to buy houses.

The survey covers affluent areas, and I suspect its to plan for building more affordable homes for the those households who can afford to earn nearly triple the national average income.

BTW, looks like I can’t afford a house in Klang Valley if want to buy now.

Below is the article from the Star:

You must have an average household income of RM14,580 a month to afford a home in the Klang Valley, according to a recent study.

The study – spearheaded by Sime Darby Property Bhd in collaboration with the Faculty of Built Environment of Universiti Malaya – takes into account the current household spending trend, price of homes and mortgage rates.

It found that certain groups of buyers interested in strategic areas can have access to houses that are priced at 56 times their household income.

The study also found that this same group can afford to spend up to 26% of their monthly household income to service a mortgage.

It identified strategic areas in the Klang Valley that are considered not only accessible but have the potential to appreciate in value. They include Nilai, Denai Alam, Bukit Jelutong and Bukit Subang.

A report of the study said that houses in selected areas in the Klang Valley remain accessible to homeowners who may be looking to invest in a second home.

The Housing-Income Index which was launched here yesterday by Urban Wellbeing, Housing and Local Government Minister Datuk Abdul Rahman Dahlan, who said the survey results would be useful for potential house buyers.

“The Index and its key findings had been reviewed by the ministry, and we find that the information is valuable as it can help policy makers and developers work hand-in-hand to build more houses that are not only accessible. but which can appreciate in value,” he said.

Abdul Rahman hoped that other property developers and the academia can carry out similar surveys in the country.

Based on the findings, Sime Darby said that 68% ofplanned housing schemes in the Klang Valley were in the accessible range.

“We intend to utilise the results to develop innovative, high quality products that are accessible and meet market needs,” said Sime darby Property managing director Datuk Seri Abd Wahab Maskan.

Household Expenditure
[image from The Star]

The Housing-Income Index was developed to gain a better understanding of home-owner profiles, specifically household incomes and spending patterns in relation to owning a home.

The study covered 1,529 respondents, of whom 1,183 were home owners at 12 locations: Bukit Jelutong, Denai Alam, Bukit Subang, Bandar Bukit Raja, Subang Jaya, USJ, Putra Heights, Ara Damansara, Mont Kiara, Melawati, Kajang and Nilai.


Marriage and Divorce statistics in Malaysia 2008-2012

December 11th, 2013
|  Subscribe in a reader | Subscribe to by Email

Some stats on marriages between 2008 and 2012 (5 years period) in Malaysia:

Marriages: 1.2mil (estimated) Muslim marriages (if total up the figures from all the states, its 908,489 marriages only. Not sure how 1.2mil was derived) and 329,209 non-Muslim marriages. 21.5% of marriages are non-Muslims.

Divorces: 210,326 Muslims and 42,507 non-Muslims. 16.8% of divorces are non-Muslims cases. Divorce rate is 17.5% for Muslims and 12.9% for non-Muslims.

It would be interesting to see the marriage and divorce trends over the same period. Wonder if marriage rate is dropping while divorce rate is rising.

Obviously, one wonders why need to have this statistics divided by religion, in the first place.

About 1.2 million Muslim marriages were registered in the country between 2008 and 2012, the Dewan Negara was told.

Minister in the Prime Minister’s Department Datuk Seri Jamil Khir Baharom said the highest number was registered in Kedah, at 115,288, followed by Kelantan (108,675), Selangor (108,104), Johor (106,503) and Perak (80,880).

Sabah, he said, recorded 71,642), while Pahang had 69,647, Terengganu (66,427), Sara­wak (39,568), Kuala Lumpur (34,744), Negri Sembilan (33,717), Penang (29,196), Malacca (27,095), Perlis (13,408), Labuan (3,142) and Putrajaya (453).

Jamil Khir was replying to a question raised by Senator Datuk Dr Mashitah Ibrahim who wanted to know the number of marriages and divorces in all communities.

He said 210,326 Muslim divorces were recorded over the same period, with Selangor topping the list with 28,570 cases, followed by Johor (17,075), Kedah (16,315), Kelantan (15,489), Pahang (12,552), Perak (12,309), Terengganu (10,918), Kuala Lumpur (10,690), Sabah (8,758), Sarawak (7,566), Negri Sembilan (7,279), Penang (6,968), Malacca (6,043), Perlis (2,864), Labuan (639) and Putrajaya (164).

The state Islamic affairs departments and the syariah courts undertook the registration of Muslim marriages and divorces, he said.

Jamil Khir said 329,209 non-Muslim marriages were registered during the same period. He also said that 42,507 cases of divorce were concluded in the courts. — Bernama


2013 13th General Elections a heartbreaker

June 7th, 2013
|  Subscribe in a reader | Subscribe to by Email

This being just after one month of our 13th General Elections (feels like ages right?), this is  my thoughts and opinion on 13th General Elections.


BN: expectation was cautiously high that BN can get back 2/3 majority. PM Najib was personally involved in leading the charge to recover Selangor. Massive funds were spent in campaigning – online, print and tv/radio media were flooded with pro-govt and pro-BN ads. The govt also provided many goodies, ranging from BR1M 2.0 cash handout, to announcing affordable housing schemes to discount for taxi purchase. Various categories of voters seem to get something. The online presence was much more organised and targeted, compared to 2008 where PR steamrolled over BN. With this in mind, expectation was that BN will comfortably win 2/3 and even capture Selangor and Kelantan. PM and his ministers went around campaigning for candidates.

PR: Not to be outdone, PR folks also had high expectation, to the extend that “ini kalilah” (this time) to change government. Even though outmuscled in print and online ads, the PR team engaged in social media as in 2008. But the similar tactics used in 2008 made it a bit like “what’s new?”. PR were confident of retaining Selangor and even get back Perak. During campaign period, PR heavyweights were also going around campaigning for fellow candidates.

Nomination and Campaigning

BN: BN did its job of ensuring strict checking on candidates, but still there were issues regarding academic qualification of some candidates, as the qualifications came from degree mills. Also, the nomination of Zulkifli Nordin (PERKASA) who had insulted Hindus (and in my opinion will continue to do more stupid things) to stand in Shah Alam as “friends of BN” candidate angered many Indians. MIC was in the backfoot trying to contain the fallout from this. Zul’s apology and subsequent fingerpointing at his previous party didn’t really endear him to voters.

This election also saw for first time BN failed to put up a candidate as the UMNO candidate for Pasir Mas failed to submit nomination paper. He’s argument is to allow independent Ibrahim Ali (also PERKASA) to fight against PAS candidate. This is a blackmark for BN, but not much publicised.  Due to this, BN already lost a seat before election day.

Due to unhappiness over candidate selection issues, some UMNO members stood as independents. A total of 61 members were sacked for going against the party. Among the high profile one is Deputy Head of Women’s wing.

PR: PR as usual did some parachuting of candidates, which also caused unhappiness. Some members who stood as independents were sacked. More worryingly was the allocation of seats. On nomination day, 7 seats saw overlapping nominations among coalition members. These were resolved, but after nomination, which led to some bad repercussions. The associate coalition member, Parti Sosialis Malaysia suffered losses due to this. In my area, ex-ISA detainee and Hindraf leader Manoharan Malayalam was dropped in favour of another ex-ISA detainee and Hindraf leader, Ganabathirao. MP for Kapar, Manikavasagam was move to state seat of Bukit Melawati.

Campaigning saw various police reports due to election offences, the usual tussles and small fights. In addition, few centres even had explosives being detonated. First time this happened. Generally campaign period went smoothly without major problems, bar the bombs.


This time around, very high number of independent candidates contested. Among prominent ones are HINDRAF’s Uthayakumar and ex-Masterskill College CEO Edmund Santhara.

Also, candidates from BERJASA and KITA also entered the fray. BERJASA is party to keep an eye on. Their focus is xenophobic and racist, and its detrimental if they win any seats.

Women candidates made up about 10% of the candidates. More effort should be made to groom and nominate female candidates. With our female voters outnumbering male voters, perhaps its time political parties think out of the box.

For the first time in Malaysian electoral history, all seats were contested and no candidate won a seat unopposed. A total of 579 parliamentary candidates contested 222 parliamentary seats. For the 505 state seats, there were 1,322 candidates


This election also saw a historic moment just days before the election date. Hindraf signed MOU with BN, thus aligning itself with the coalition. Waythamoorthy’s move saw a plethora of responses – from good to bad. Some were supportive, saying if BN can help fulfill the Hindraf Demands, why not? Others say this as opportunist move by Waytha and betrayal of Indian community. MIC was lost for words for few days. Even HRP boss Uthaya was angry. PR shocked. The community was divided. BN thought they have clinched it.


Record number of independents, including some who quit or were sacked from their parties to stand. Among them are UMNO deputy Wanita chief, Kamaliah and ex-Teratai assemblywoman Jenice of DAP.

All the independent candidates lost their deposits. Lesson learnt – independents can’t win it.

Election Day

This is the first time inedible ink is used for elections. About RM5 million was spent to buy the ink. However, within hours of election start, pictures of voters with clean fingers emerged. For some, the ink can be washed away using detergents, cleaning solutions etc. The election commission have to answer for this, and according to them, the halal ingredients used made the ink less strong. I think no need waste money next time la.

This time around, another issue propped up – phantom voters (foreign workers with IC) being ferried around to vote. Few incidents of people getting bashed up were reported. And some citizens were held up by watchgroups of opposition to verified if they are indeed Malaysians. I saw an incident at Taman Sentosa Klang at around 3pm, where police were summoned and they took away someone (not sure if phantom voter or the guy who bashed up the phantom voter).

This election saw a record number of voters turn out to vote. 82.5% of Malaysian voters voted. There were reports of long queues. At the Taman Sentosa centre, the queue lined up until housing area road. Easily about 200 people were queuing at 11.30am. The weather forecast that it will rain in the afternoon and the higher voter could be a cause. EC should have set up more than just 2 counters to check IC and polling centre.


There is a serious gap between expectation (read the beginning) and performance of the contestants. I feel that both BN and PR had high expectations and were seriously disappointed.  PM Najib’s faced during announcement of winning simple majority seemed to say it all. It was a bad victory. BN failed to gain their prizes – Selangor and 2/3 majority. Overall, BN lost 7 seats compared to 2008. However, UMNO did well compared to other coalition members, winning 88 (or 2/3 of BN) seats. MCA saw a massacre as they lost half their seats (15 down to 7) while MIC took 4, better than the 3 in 2008.

PR thought they won Perak, NS and made inroads in Johor. But they didn’t win any extra states. In fact, they lost Kedah. But both Selangor and Penang were retained with better results, and in my opinion would be hard to imagine BN winning them back. DAP, among the PR team, managed to win much more(10 extra seats) than 2008 (including Sarawak and Sabah), and is the opposition with the most MPs in Dewan Rakyat (38 seats). PR and PAS managed to hold on to some seats. In the end, BN took 133 seats and PR 89. If any defections are planned, PR would need 23 crossovers or aligned MPs to make majority.

 PR also secured more votes (50.87%) as compared to BN (47.38%), but since Malaysia practises first by post and not popular vote system, its pointless to argue about this.

PM Najib made a misstep by blaming Chinese tsunami for the losses suffered by BN. BN big names like ex-Johor MB Ghani Othman lost to Lim Kit Siang. However, stats indicate that losses are due to urban communities (which have bigger chinese representation) voting against BN while the malay heartlands and rural areas still supporting BN. Since there are less Chinese in the heartland and rural areas, it looks like Chinese tsunami, but actually its urban tsunami.

The PM in the same speech mentioned about national reconciliation needed to ensure unity. We have to see what kind of national reconciliation is to be formed.

This election also saw a record turnout, with more than 80% voting.


MIC contested 9 parliament and 18 state seats. It won 4 parliament and 5 state, which is 9/27 or 33%. President G Palanivel claimed that MIC received good support from Malay and Indian voters, generally but I’m not sure how to arrive at that conclusion. The result is better than 2008 whereby it won 3 parliament and some state seats.

The parliament seat winners are G Palanivel, Dr Subra, Saravanan and Kamalanathan. G Palanivel, the president, suffered a scare as the majority against DAP’s Manoharan in Cameron Highlands “safe seat” was only. Dr Subra predictably won over Chua Jui Meng, Saravanan against Vasanthakumar (ex-Hindraf). The major setback is defeat of Murugesan at Kota Raja seat against incumbent Dr Siti Mariah and SK Devamany against incumbent Dr Michael Jeyakumar in Sg Siput. Many felt Devamany was sacrificed by Palanivel to ensure Palanivel is able to stand in a safe seat. Not sure how much of this issue is going to affect the coming MIC elections.

MIC lost Subang and Kapar against other Indian candidates.

The state seats this time around are from Johor, Malacca.


PR is holding a series of protests, but I doubt it would have any bearing on election results. More than 100 petitions have been filed, so perhaps some seats may see re-election. Some MPs are also having court cases, so more possibilities of by-elections. Rakyat is already looking forward for GE2014.

SPR will be in limelight as the proposed delineation of constituency boundary is to be done this year. Would there be more gerrymandering to try maintain advantage to ruling government?

For BN and PR, its back to drawing boards. Bring on GE14!

Poverty and Gini reduced, average household income increased but…

March 28th, 2013
|  Subscribe in a reader | Subscribe to by Email

Good news indeed, right? I’m sure no one will be unhappy to hear that poverty is reduced. That will contribute a lot towards reducing crime and social problems (barring foreigners-linked ones).

Average household income increases..definitely good news for businessmen as family should have more purchasing power. Can go for movies at cinema, buy more books, enjoy eating out with family once in a while, go on short domestic holiday (hey, maybe even overseas with Everyone Can Fly!), take up some insurance policy, send kids to tuition, renovate house…whoa the list can go on and on. Our household income increased by nearly RM1000 in 3 years (2009-2012), from RM4025 to RM5000 per month. That’s a annual growth of 7.2% it says. The urban household (with more than 2/3 of Malaysians living in urban area) grew 6.6% per annum from RM4,705 a month in 2009 to RM5,742 in 2012, while rural household income grew 6.4% a year from a monthly average of RM2,545 in 2009 to RM3,080 in 2012. (Questions whether its enough to buy a house is not relevant). So, how many of your got a average 7% increase in income per year? Should be a lot of us, right?

And what about the Gini coefficient? Basically, the lower the value of Gini, the better it is because it portrays the inequality of wealth distribution (higher value means rich becoming richer, poor becoming poorer). We registered a drop of 0.01, from 0.441 to 0.431. So the gap between Ananda Khrishnan and myself has been reduced, well probably a miniscule amount, but still REDUCED! 🙂

So, what is the definition of being poor? Want to check out an old article of mine about Budget 2013? Not so old actually.

Ok, let’s read the article from Star below and feel an unexplainable pleasure. Then proceed to article  that appears after that.

Malaysia more than halved its poverty statistics over the past three years, with the number of poor people now standing at less than 110,000 nationwide, said Minister in the Prime Minister’s Department Tan Sri Nor Mohamed Yakcop.

He said the country’s overall poverty rate dropped to 1.7% in 2012, compared to 3.8% in 2009.

“With this achievement, the target under the 10th Malaysia Plan to reduce overall po­verty to 2% in 2015 has been achieved three years earlier.

“This is a result of rapid economic development and the effectiveness of poverty eradication programmes carried out by the Go­­vernment,” he said at a press conference to announce the findings of the 2012 National Household Income Study here.

He said the fall in incidences of poverty happened in both urban and rural areas, with urban poverty falling to just 1% last year compared to 1.7% in 2009, while rural areas registered a significant drop from 8.4% in 2009 to just 3.4% in 2012.

Sabah registered the biggest reduction in poverty from 19.7% of the population in 2009 to 8.1% three years later.

The minister said all states registered a reduction in poverty rates, with marked improvements in Penang, Selangor, Malacca and the federal territories – all of which ave­raged 0% hardcore poor in their areas as at 2012.

“This is proof that the Federal Government’s initiatives to eradicate poverty have succeeded and been of benefit to the rakyat regardless of differences in political ideology,” he said.

Meanwhile, Malaysians enjoyed an annual increase of 7.2% to their average household income over the 2009-2012 period, or a nearly a RM1,000 hike in their average monthly income from RM4,025 in 2009 to RM5,000 in 2012.

Despite similar growth rates, urban household income grew at 6.6% per annum from RM4,705 a month in 2009 to RM5,742 in 2012 while rural household income went up at a rate of 6.4% a year from a monthly average of RM2,545 in 2009 to RM3,080 in 2012.

Despite this, he added that Malaysia still improved on wealth distribution, having secured a lower score of 0.431 on its “Gini coefficient” (a system to measure inequality in wealth distribution) in 2012, compared to 0.441 in 2009.



OK, so you are feeling happy and blissful already? Great! Now, let’s come down to earth a bit by reading how poverty line is calculated and what’s the current figures are:

Sesebuah isi rumah adalah dianggap sebagai miskin tegar sekiranya pendapatan bulanan isi rumah tersebut adalah kurang daripada Paras Garis Kemiskinan (PGK) makanan, iaitu pendapatan yang mencukupi bagi membolehkan isi rumah tersebut memenuhi keperluan asas dari segi nutrisi makanan yang minimum yang membolehkan setiap ahlinya mempunyai tubuh badan yang sihat.

PLI miskin tegar adalah diukur berdasarkan kepada komposisi demografi ahli isi rumah iaitu bilangan isi rumah, umur dan jantina bagi menentukan keperluan diet atau kalori (Keperluan Harian Diperlukan atau Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) 2004, Kementerian Kesihatan dan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia). PLI juga mengambil kira harga jualan semasa bagi membeli keperluan harian tersebut berdasarkan lokasi mengikut Negeri dan Strata (Bandar atau Luar Bandar). PLI akan dikira berdasarkan kepada keperluan setiap isi rumah dan Indeks Harga Pengguna atau Consumer Price Index (CPI) makanan.

Keperluan Kalori bagi setiap isi rumah dikira berdasarkan kepada struktur demografi setiap isi rumah seperti umur, berat, jantina dan kadar metabolasi badan atau basal metabolic rate (BMR) mengikut paras aktiviti fizikal atau physical activity level (PAL) setiap isi rumah.

Sejumlah 8,725 kalori setiap hari adalah diperlukan (untuk 5 Orang setiap isi rumah) berdasarkan kepada 7 kategori makanan yang meliputi 13 jenis makanan iaitu :

  • nasi;
  • tepung gandum;
  • biskut;
  • ayam;
  • telur;
  • ikan;
  • susu;
  • minyak masak;
  • majerin;
  • gula;
  • buah-buahan;
  • sayur-sayuran; dan
  • kacang.

(Berdasarkan kepada Komposisi Nutrisi Makanan Malaysia, IMR 1997)

Sehubungan itu, merujuk kepada Unit Perancang Ekonomi, Paras Garis Kemiskinan Tahun 2009 selaras dengan Rancangan Ekonomi Kesepuluh (RMK-10),Paras Garis Kemiskinan (PGK) makanan yang telah ditetapkan untuk isi rumah miskin tegar berdasarkan kepada kiraan di atas adalah RM460.00 seisi rumah.

Definisi Miskin

Sesebuah isi rumah adalah dianggap miskin sekiranya pendapatan bulanan isi rumah tersebut adalah kurang daripada Paras Garis Kemiskinan (PGK), iaitu pendapatan yang mencukupi bagi membolehkan isi rumah tersebut memenuhi keperluan asas dari segi makanan dan bukan makanan yang membolehkan setiap ahlinya berfungsi di dalam masyarakat.

PLI bukan makanan adalah manggunakan kiraan Bank Dunia di dalam menentukan keperluan minima perkhidmatan dan bukan makanan. Keperluan ini dikira berdasarkan kepada perbelanjaan keseluruhan isi rumah dengan mengambil kira PLI makanan (isi rumah yang berada pada jurang 10% di atas dan 10% di bawah PLI makanan). Ini akan menunjukkan jumlah perbelanjaan sebenar termasuk komponen bukan makanan untuk membolehkan sesebuah isi rumah tersbut berfungsi di dalam masyarakat.

PLI akan dikira berdasarkan kepada keperluan setiap isi rumah dan Indeks Harga Pengguna atau Consumer Price Index (CPI) makanan dan bukan makanan mengikut Negeri dan Strata (Bandar dan LuarBandar).

PLI bukan makanan akan mengambil kira keperluan asas seperti berikut:

  • Pakaian;
  • Sewa, Minyak dan Elektrik;
  • Perkhidmatan asas;
  • Pengangkutan dan komunikasi; dan
  • Lain-Lain

Sehubungan itu, merujuk kepada Unit Perancang Ekonomi, Paras Garis Kemiskinan Tahun 2009 selaras dengan Rancangan Ekonomi Kesepuluh (RMK-10), Paras Garis Kemiskinan (PGK) makanan dan bukan makanan yang telah ditetapkan untuk isi rumah miskin berdasarkan kepada kiraan di atas adalah RM760.00 seisi rumah.



So, poverty rate is RM760 per month per household of 5 person. Low income household is a bit unclear, with values of <1500, <2000, and even <3000 being stated.

Question is, is RM760 a valid figure to define poverty line? Maybe the mechanism stated above needs to revisited immediately so that our statistics are not made to be laughing stock.

If our poverty line is increased to RM2000, poverty rate can be as high as 33%! Interesting right?

Our average household income had increased and our inflation rate still steady at below 2% and its expected to continue at that range for 2013, says our Deputy Finance Minister. Check out CPI trend at . Questions do arise, is an average income of RM5,000 per household (5 people) per month sufficient especially in urban areas?

You may want to read the following articles as well: